Newsgroups are virtual discussion forums on the Internet in which to a limited subject area text contributions (also called news, articles or postings) are exchanged. If a user posts an article in a newsgroup, it will be sent to a news server. The latter can then make the article available to its users and forward it to other servers, which in turn make it available to their users.

For decades there have been various news systems worldwide. The best known is the Usenet, which connects a variety of news servers worldwide.

This is also perfect for publishing questionnaires. The return of these questionnaires is then usually by e-mail.

If you post the survey now in only one group it may be that you do not receive enough questionnaires so it is better to publish the questionnaire in several groups at the same time. So you can say that so promise 6-8 a satisfactory response rate.

This type of questionnaire distribution is also called cross-post.

However, it should be noted that the questionnaire is only published in groups in which there is a contextual relationship to the questionnaire topic. Another important point to think about in how many and in which groups you ask the questionnaire is that mass mailings violate netiquette.

But there are also a few other points that play a role in surveys in newsgroups namely The processing time should not be more than 10 minutes.

If you have a cross-cultural survey between vers. Countries (eg Germany and Japan), it is advisable to use the questionnaire only in regional groups and not in international ones, since there are often people who can not be assigned to any particular country. (born in Germany, but lives in Japan for 10 years)

Of course, if you already publish a survey in regional groups, it is also advisable to write them in the local language, as this will also increase the participation rate.

Since the number of lines is displayed in such articles, it is advantageous to write the questionnaire rather space-saving, as many do not want to take part in a too long questionnaire.

If you want to start the survey several times in the Netnews, but you should wait at least three weeks between the publications.

A big incentive for potential participants is certainly also if they are promised that they will receive the results report.

Also to the polls in newsgroups there are still some advantages to name.

The Netnews are certainly a good platform to reach certain groups and thus limit the circle of people. In addition, there is a very broad range of topics from which one can then choose. Furthermore, one can expect to get back 90% of the questionnaires after one week, which usually means between 100-150 questionnaires

However, this method of questionnaire distribution also has some disadvantages

One would be that the posted articles are not stored on a local system but, as it were, wander around the world and are stored by all news servers. This then loads the whole Internet.

Another disadvantage is that the refusal rate, ie the number of those who have read the questionnaire but have not completed it, can not be determined.

Due to the fact that the questionnaire is publicly available, it can happen that it is also discussed below the newsgroup participants, which could lead to distortions and influences.

Surveys in the WWW / online questionnaire

This possibility of spreading questionnaires on the Internet is certainly the most frequently used.

In the process, invitation mails containing a link are sent to the participants of the investigation. If you click on this link you get to a page where you can fill out the questionnaire.

The questionnaire is constructed using the page description language HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language).

Publication of a www attendance call

Since a questionnaire must be actively called up by the user, advertising and hyperlinks are absolutely necessary!

4 possibilities of participation call:

Establishment of contacts to WWW site operators with a request to them to place a hyperlink on their site

Registration of the relevant questionnaire page at WWW search services banner ads (costs!)

Use of professional promotion agencies Determinants of participation:

If you want to do an investigation, you should know how a willingness to participate can be positively influenced. Emphasizing all of the following factors can be beneficial! In addition, a time is necessary, with the duration of 6-15 min. is optimal and can have a positive effect on the willingness to participate!

• curiosity

• Contribution to research

• self-knowledge

• Material incentive!